HISTORY AND HUMAN RELATIONS in that whole side of historical study which examines the processes of things in time., is the necessary cause ot counterpart of what appears as bias in the literary historians. It is more easy to say that Charles I was a wicked or a wilful man than to describe in seventeenth- century England the development of a situation that produced serious dilemmas and predicaments for honest men of both sides. When the large organisation of the narrative is wrong in this way, and the profounder enquiries are-evaded because mere partisanship can find an easy answer to the problems' that arise, the history is vitiated at precisely those points where people draw lessons from it and make the inferences that are to affect their conduct From the point of view of present-day utility and general moral education, the defects of the literary historians, therefore, must be regarded as a serious matter. They contributed greatly to historical understanding in their own time. But our whole apprehension of human conflict in past centuries has advanced so far ahead of this that we cannot afford to allow the clock to be put back.